NIH Toolbox® Publications

Below are suggested citations for NIH Toolbox Emotion measures.


Salsman, J.M., Butt, Z., Pilkonis, P.A., Cyranowski, J.M., Zill, N., Hendrie, H.C., . . . Cella, D. (2013). Emotion Assessment Using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology, 80(11 Supplement 3), S76-S86.

Babakhanyan, I., McKenna, B.S., Casaletto, K.B., Nowinski, C.J., & Heaton, R.K. (2018). National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery for English- and Spanish-Speaking Adults: Normative Data and Factor-Based Summary Scores. Patient Related Outcome Measures, 9, 115—127

Paolillo EW, McKenna BS, Nowinski CJ, Thomas M, L. , Malcarne VL, Heaton RK. NIH Toolbox® Emotion Batteries for Children: Factor-Based Composites and Norms. Assessment. 2018.

Anger, Fear, Sadness

Pilkonis, P.A., Choi, S.W., Salsman, J.M., Butt, Z., Moore, T.L., Lawrence, S.M., . . . Cella, D. (2013). Assessment of Self-Reported Negative Affect in the NIH Toolbox. Psychiatry Research, 206(1), 88-97.

Anger Fixed Form Ages 8-17 v3, Fear/Anxiety CAT Ages 8-17 v3, Sadness/Depression Ages 8-17 v3

Quinn H, Thissen D, Liu Y, Magnus B, Lai JS, Amtmann D, Varni JW, Gross HE, DeWalt DA. (2014) Using item response theory to enrich and expand the PROMIS® pediatric self-report banks. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2014 Oct 25;12:160.

Pain Interference, Pain Intensity 

Cook, K.F., Dunn, W., Griffith, J.W., Morrison, M.T., Tanquary, J., Sabata, D., . . . Gershon, R.C. (2013). Pain Assessment Using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology, 80(11 Supplement 3), S49-S53.

Positive Affect, General Life Satisfaction, Meaning and Purpose v2.0

Salsman, J., Lai, J.-S., Hendrie, H., Butt, Z., Zill, N., Pilkonis, P.A., . . . Cella, D. (2014). Assessing Psychological Well-Being: Self-Report Instruments for the NIH Toolbox. Quality of Life Research, 23(1), 205-215.

Meaning and Purpose v3

Salsman, J. M., Schalet, B. D., Park, C. L., George, L., Steger, M. F., Hahn, E. A., Snyder, M. A., & Cella, D. (2020). Assessing meaning & purpose in life: development and validation of an item bank and short forms for the NIH PROMIS®. Quality of Life Research, 29(8), 2299–2310.

Social Support, Companionship, Social Distress, Positive Social Development

Cyranowski, J.M., Zill, N., Bode, R., Butt, Z., Kelly, M.A.R., Pilkonis, P.A., . . . Cella, D. (2013). Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: National Institute of Health (NIH) Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales. Health Psychology, 32(3), 293-301.

Perceived Stress, Self-Efficacy 

Kupst, M.J., Butt, Z., Stoney, C.M., Griffith, J.W., Salsman, J.M., Folkman, S., & Cella, D. (2015). Assessment of Stress and Self-Efficacy for the NIH Toolbox for Neurological and Behavioral Function. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 28(5), 531-544.

Vision-Related Quality of Life v2.0

Paz, S. H., Slotkin, J., McKean-Cowdin, R., Lee, P., Owsley, C., Vitale, S., . . . Hays, R. D. (2013). Development of a Vision-Targeted Health Related Quality Of Life Item Measure. Quality of Life Research, 22(9), 2477-2487


Last updated on 3/23/2023